Friday, 17 April 2009

Family photo, Kerman, My mother's family 1930s

عکس خانوادگی- خانواده مادری : معین زاده، ساعد وسعید
عکس در سال 1317 در کرمان گرفته شده است

Family photo 1938, Kerman
My mother's immidiate family on her mother's side.
Moieen-zadeh, Moini, Sa'id and Sa'ed.

Kerman is an ancient city amid the deserts of south-east Iran. The province of the same name comprises of a number of towns and villages which sprawl for hundreds of miles in and along the desert and also mountanious areas and valleys. The name Karmanieh or Kerman dates back to 7th century BC and is mentioned in the oldest maps. The city of Kerman is circled by dry barren desert and hills which stretch in every direction. Kerman had been a strategic route to the south of Iran and the Persian Gulf. Historically it had been invaded by many conquerors who had set ruins to it. But the Kermanis, being resilient as they were had built the city from ruins. Until recent decades, Kerman had the biggest Zorostrian population after the city of Yazd. Zorostrianism is the oldest religion known to man with their prophey Zoroaster who brought the Book Avesta which preached kindness and good manners. Today, Zorostrians are few in number as many had emigrated to foreign lands. In general, Kermanis had kept their ancient traditions and Islam has a strong presence in the centre as well as some cities. Kermanis speak Farsi but with a dialect which varies in the towns and villages. The dialect of Kerman city has a tenderness and warmth blended with kindness and humbleness. Kermanis had been famous for their hospitality. Kerman had also been famous for its carpet industry as for thousands of years it had imported the finest carpets to the rest of the world.

Kerman had not been a green city due to the surrounding deserts. Nevertheless, a network of subterranean water system which flows from the faraway mountains and its construction dates back to several thousands of years irrigates the city gardens and the plantations outside. In the old days, the architecture of the houses were suitable for the climate; crisp cold in winter, dry hot in summer. Houses were built around a central courtyard with a pond in the middle. The rooms in every house had high ceilings and doors opened to each room and onto the verandahs which led into the circular courtyard. Basements were also a necessary part of each house as they were used to store and preserve food such as bread, jams, pickles, bottles of distilled herbs and vegetables extracts; rose petals, mint, rosemary, oregano which were used to make cool sherbet in summer or for medicinal purposes.
More information: 1-Scent of Saffron (three generations of aqn Iranian family), Rouhi Shafii, Scarlet Press, UK, 1997.

2-Pomegranate Hearts, Rouhi Shafii, Shiraz Press, UK, 2006.

* * *

My mother's family had lived in Kerman for as long as their history could be traced. My grandmother's mother had been married off at the age of fourteen. According to my grandmother, she was so beautiful that no one called her by he real name (whatever it was). She was called Bibi Aroos (the lady bride) until her death in young age. Her husband, who was a desndant of some Shiat Immam(sayyed) came from a famous merchant's family(Moeen-al-tojar-respected merchant) and was dumb.

When Reza Shah came to power in 1926, he began the enormous task of building a nation-state out of various self-governing regions of Iran. In the 1930s along with other governmental establishments, he established the National Notary Office and urged the population to choose family names and to register their births and deaths. My grandmother's brothers chose Moeen-zadeh(born of Moeen/the trusted)as their surname. But the three sisters; Alieh, Elieh and Attieh took their husband's surnames. Of the four Moeen-zadeh brothers. Javad worked at Bank Shahi (the first Iranian bank), Kazem and Karim chose the tax office and the fourth became a police investigator.

My maternal grandfather, Ibrahim Sa'id was appointed as the first head of the Notary Office in Kerman. He travelled widely with an entourage to towns and villages and issued identity cards. Ironically, he met my father in Jiroft, where he decided to choose the family name; Shafii for himself and many members of his clan (he was a tribal chief) as one of his ancestors was called Ghasem Shafi'e.

My maternal grandfather died at a very young age, never knowing that that arrogant, tribal man would one day become his-son-in law. Unfortunately, no photo of my maternal granfather exists but according to my grandmother, he was a very gentle and kind person and loved his two daughters dearly. He used to oversee their upbringing and personally fed my mother, Afagh(the world) the best portion of meat when she was a child. He was keen that her duaghters; Afagh and Iran(taken after the country's name) finish their studies. My grandfather was also a poet(his pseudo name was Paysepar). His name had been registered in the history of Kerman's poets. In all, he wrote 250 lines of which, a few had remained in my mother's diary. His sudden death brought much hardship to my mother's family as my grandmother, Atieh was only 27 years of age when her husband whom she dearly loved, died of an unknown illness. At the time of his death, he was only 33, my mother Afagh 12 and my aunt Iran was 10 years of age.

* * *

The photo was taken in 1938 and it is an opening to my picture book. Most of the immediate members of my mother's family are present. It is after the unveiling period so men are very formal, wearing double-breasted suits; women, in tailor-made dresses, some with permed hair. I am not sure whose hoiuse it had been but it seems that it is a typical Kermani house and the photo was taken outside on the verendah.

From the right, my aunt Iran, as a teenager with short hair and patterned top, beside her is my mother's cousin, Esmat of the same age as my aunt and behind them, her brother Hassan khan. My mother Afagh has just been married to my father Hassan. She is third on the right in the front row wearing a well-tailored suit: long skirt and a jacket. My father is standing right behind her. Next to my mother is her third uncle's wife (I have forgotten both their names). In the middle is my grandmother, Bibi Attieh, in a two-piece dress with white collar; one leg over the other. The elder woman on her right is her sister Bibi Alieh whom I never met. and beside her is Marziah kihanum, my grandmother's elder brother's wife. I will speak about some of these relatives in more detail. The young girl beside Marziah khanum is Badri khanum, my grandmother's younger brother's wife and beside her, Ashraf, Javad khan's daughter from a first wife.

Standing from the right is my father, my grandmother's third brother. Standing from the left is my grandmother's younger brother Karim and beside him Javad khan. The rest of the children and adults are not known to me.

* * *
My mother's family on both her father and mother's side were very modern especially the men. My motherr's cousins on her fathert's side either joined the army or the navy. Mymother's uncles on her mother's side worked as civil servants at Reza Shah's newely-established administration. Javad khan worked at Bank Shahi (the first bank established in Iran). He was married with two children, when he fell in love with the daughter of a high ranking clergy (Seghat-al-Islam), Marzieh, who was a young student at the time. Their love story spread through town and poems were made about the clergy's daughter and the son of the dumb merchant who now worked at the Bank! The poems entered the folklore of the town, where people sneered at the whole saga. He eventually divorced his wife and married Marzieh.

In the late 1940s, he was transferred to Tehran where they bought a house in Bahar Avenue. Apart from the two children from his first wife; a son called Taj and the daughter Ashraf, who were treated as second class, Javad khan and Marzieh khanum had 5 children; two daughters and three sons. Uncle Javad was an educated man for his time and Marzieh khanum was modern and very chic. Their five children all got university degrees and some were sent abroad to study. The duaghters, Parvin and Shireen married high ranking lawyers. As long as I remember, they were the elite of the family!

When I moved to Tehran in early 1960, my grandmother accompanied me in order to settle me down. Whenever she went to visit her brother she took me with her to the house in Bahar avenue which was full of nice furniture and antiques. To me, as a young, inexperienced girl, they all seemed aloof and snubs. I hated these visitations as I had to wear my best dress and feel stressed all through the visit. As we grew older, I stopped all contacts with them.

My grandmother's second brother Kazem was the kindest and sweetest of all the four. Legend says that he was the casavova of his time and the darling of young girls. He played many tricks to meet his amorous in clandestine and avoided scandals in the traditional, ancient city of Kerman. Later, he married a girl who bore no children for him. He got a second wife but neither of them bore children. The two wives; Nosrat and Maryam lived together in the same household and had no jelousy towards eachother. When Nosrat was terminally ill in later years, Maryam nursed her to the last days. We visited this uncle a lot especially when he was posted to Esfahan and I was in Tehran. He used to tell us tales of the old days and amuse us all the time.

The third brother who was a police inspector moved to the city of Mashad with his wife and only son. We heard about them from time to time but never saw them. The fourth brother, Abdol-Karim was married with 5 children; three daughters and two sons. He worked at the tax office and was posted to Jiroft, my father's home town in the 1950s, where he lived for decades. The daughters now live in the US but we have not seen them since childhood.

My grandmother's sisters, Alieh and Elieh married at an early age and moved out of Kerman. Aleih Khanum moved to a Village/town called Gharyet-al-Arab(the village of the Arabs). She had three sons and two daughters. The older son, Fatol-alah khan who was very handsome moved to Tehran at young age. He married a woman from a distinguaished Tehrani family who was a few years older than him. His children moved to the US and he died in an old people's home in total misery. The second son, Hassan also moved to Tehran and was employed at Point 4, which was an American establishment. He spoke good English and adored anything American. He had three daughters from his Tehrani wife, Akhtar khanum. The elder daughter, Djinus moved to the US in the 70s but the two remaining who were twins had remained in Tehran. I particularly liked this cousin a lot since he helped me in the early years when I was a student in Tehran. I saw him for the last time in mid-1990s when I visited Tehran. He died of Azheimer's disease a few years later.

Alieh khanum's third son, Ahmad khan stayed in Kerman and married a woman from Kerman. He died very young of heart attack. I always met them when I was travelling to Kerman en-route to Jiroft and stayed a night or two at their beautiful, traditional Kermani house and was welcomed by his wife; Fatima khanum. Of his 5 children, a younger son died and one son lives in the US. The rest, two daughters and the elder son live in the Kerman province.
Of Alieh khanum's two daughters, Esmat married in their village and stayed there all her life. She didn't bear any children. Nahid, the younger sister was married to an army officer and moved around Iran every two years. When she finally settled in Tehran in late 1950s, Nahid got a brain tumor and died shortly, age 32. She left 5 young children behind who grew up under harsh conditions. The first year that I moved to Tehran in 1960, I stayed with Nahid and her family for a year and have vivid memories of her. We were all devastated when she died so young. All her children now live in Tehran.

My grandmother's second sister, Elieh khanum married a man from Rafsanjan and moved to that town. We rarely saw them and I have no information about the whereabouts of her children. I only have a cloudy memory of her when she had a stroke and was ill in Kerman. My grandmother used to visit her and take me with her.

Well, this is all I can say about most of the people in the above family photo. I will talk of my grandmother and the rest of my close family when I put more pictures of them in my picture book.


عکس خانوادگی
1317/ کرمان

این عکس در سال 1317 گرفته شده است

از راست به چپ: عصمت خانم دختر خاله مادرم که خدود پانزده سال دارد. خاله ایران در حدود همان سن و سال و در کنار انها مادرم افاق که بتازگی بازدواج پدرم در امده و هفده ساله است. مادرم کت و دامن بتن دارد و موها یش را اراسته است بلا فا صله پشت سرش پدرم ایستاده است با کت و شلوار و کراوات و مو ها یش را به عقب مرتب شانه کرده است
در طرف دست راست مادرم همسر یکی از دائی هایش نشسته است و بعد مادر بزرگ من ، بی بی عطیه با لباس یقه سفید پا ها را رویهم انداخته است. در کنار او خواهرش بی بی عالیه با پالتو کلفت و در کنار او همسر دائی بزرگ مادرم، مرضیه خانم کودک خردسالش را در بغل دارد. بدری خانم همسر دائی کوچک مادرم و اشرف دختر دائی مادرم در کنار او.
ایستاده از چپ، دائی جان معنیی همسر بدری خانم و دائی جان معین زاده همسر مرضیه خانم قرار دارند ازسمت راست، حسن خان ساعد، خواهر عصمت خانم و بعد پدرم حسن و دائی دوم مادرم ایستاده اند.
نمای ظاهری عکس نشان میدهد که اعضاء خانواده تا انجا که ممکن بوده است دور هم جمع شده اند تا این عکس تاریخی برای ما یادگار بماند
زمان بعد از کشف حجاب رضا شاهی است و با انکه بیشتر زنان حاضر در این عکس در ابتدا با کشف حجاب مخالف بودند اما بعد ها بیشترشان با لباسهای مد روز ان زمان خو گرفتند.
کشف حجاب در کشف کرمان با سر سختی بسیار از طرف خانواده ها و علمای انزمان مواجه شد.مادر بزرگ من در حالی که خود زن جوانی بود اما تا دو سال پا از خانه بیرون نگذاشت تا سرو صدای اولیه خوابید و او توانست با چادر بیرون رود. البته روبنده برای همیشه از میان رفت. مادرم اما بخصوص فبل از ازدواج بهمراه دائی ها در مجالس مهمانی که برای کشف حجاب از طرف فرماندار برگذار میشد شرکت میکرد و از اینکه نباید چادر بسر کند لذت میبرد.
خانواده مادری من تا انجا که تاریخ بیاد دارد کرمانی بودند پدر بزرگ مادرم از تجار بازار بود و از خانواده معین التجار. مادر مادر بزرگم در سن بسیار کم به عقد یکی از پسران معین التجار در میاید که اتفا قا لال بوده است و او را سید لال مینامیداند. این دختر جوان گویا انقدر زیبا بوده است که تا اخر عمر بنام بی بی عروس معروف شده بود. بی بی عروس از ازدواج زودرسش دارای فرزندان بسیار میشود: 4 پسر و 3 دختر. خود او اما در سننین جوانی وفات میکند که علت ان بر ما نا معلوم است.
مادر بزرگم نیز در سن جوانی بازدواج پدر بزرگم در امد اما ازا نجا که پدر بزرگ شخصی درس خوانده و شاعر منش بود رفتارش با همسر و دو دخترش، مادر من ، افاق و خا له ایران بسیار برعکس مردان روزگار خود بوده است. مادر بزرگ بی بی عطیه در سن جوانی و درحالی که دخترانش تنها 12 و 10 ساله بودند شوهر مهربان و شاعر خود را از دست میدهد. این فاجعه برای او و دخترانش اثرات نا گواری بر جای گذارد که بعدا بانها میپردازم. پدر بزرگ ابراهیم سعید شاعر بود و از وی حدود 250 قطعه شعر بر جای مانده است و نام او و همچنین تخلص او (پی سپار) در کتاب شعرای کر مان به ثبت رسیده است. پدر بزرگ بعنوان اولین رئیس ثبت احوال رضا شاهی بهمراه مامورانی به همه نقاط کرمان سفر میکرد و اهالی را تشویق میکرد تا برای خود و افراد خانواده شان شناسنامه بگیرند. در یکی از این سفرها به متطقه جیرفت، برای مرد جوانی که رئیس یک قبیله بود شناسنامه ای با نام فامیلی شفیعی صادر کرد بی خبر از انکه چند سال بعد انمرد قبیله ای با دختر جوان و دردانه اش افاق ازدواج خواهد کرد. مادرم افاق انقدر دردانه پدر بود که وی با دست خود برایش مغز قلم میپخت و باو میداد تا قوی و سالم بزرگ شود. عمر پدر بزرگ کوتاه بود و او در سن 33 سا لگی به بیماری نا شناخته ای گرفتار شد و بزودی از دنیا رخت بر بست. در یغ که از وی بجز اشعار پراکنده عکسی بیادگار نمانده است
از دائی های مادرم جواد معین زاده بزرگترین دائی، کارمند بانک شاهی، اولین بانک ایران بود. وی سالها قبل ازدواج کرده و صاحب یک پسر بنام تاج و یک دختر بنام اشرف بود که بنا گهان عاشق دختر جوانی میشود که نامش مرضیه و دختر روحانی مشهور انزمان، ثقته الاسلام بود. داستان این عشق بر سر زبانها افتاد و عوام برای ان اشعار هجو ساختند و بر سر کوچه و بازار میخواندند. دائی جان معین زاده بالاخره همسرش را طلاق داد و با مرضیه ازدواج کرد. مرضیه خانم انطور که ما او را میشناختیم زنی بسیار مدرن و شیک پوش و صاحب سلیقه و متفرعن بود. انها صاحب 5 فرزند شدند: سه پسر و 2 دختر. من از پسرها خاطرهای ندارم اما بیاد میاورم زمانی را که در سال 1340 من باتفاق مادر بزرگ بتهران امدیم تا من در دانشگاه بتحصیل بپردازم و مادز بزرگ گاه برای دیدن این برادر به خانه انها در خیابان بهار میرفت و مراهم نا خواتسته با خود میبرد. این بازدید ها برای من رنج اور بود چونکه میبایست لباس شیک بپوشم که در ان زمان کم داشتم و بسیار مواظب رفتار خود باشم. دختر بزرگ دائی جان ، پروین که گویا یکسال از من بزرکتر بود هیچ تلاشی در جهت نزدیکی با من نمیکرد و من بعد از انکه مادر بزرگ به بم بازگشت دیگر بدیدن انها نرفتم. بهر حال فرزندان این دائی همه روانه امریکا شدند و احتمالا اکنون نیز در انجا زند گی میکنند.
برادر دوم مادر بزرگ که نام او بخاطرم نمانده بعنوان بازجو یا کاراگاه در اداره شهربانی کرمان کار میکرذد و دارای یک فرزند پسر بود. بعدها وی به مشهد انتقال یافت و کسی از او خبردار نشد. برادر سوم که کاظم نام داشت با همه ما بسیار مهربان و نزدیک بود. کاظم خان کارمند اداره ثبت اسناد بود و بعدها رئیس ان. وی ابتدا با زنی بنام نصرت ازدواج کرد و سپس زن دیگری اختیار کرد که قبلا در خانه انها کار میکرد. من این دائی را زمانی که باصفهان منتقل شده بود بسیار میدیدم و از او خاطرات شیرینی در ذهنم بجای مانده است. دو زن او، نصرت و مریم در نهایت صلح و صفا با هم در یک خانه زندگی میکردند و با انکه هیچکدام صاحب فرزندی نشدند اما مصاحبلت با انها و دائی بخصوص زمانی که تریاک مفصل کشیده و نئشه بود و از خاطرات دوران جوانی و ماجراهای خود با دختران جوان کرمانی بازگو میکرد بسیار سرگرم کننده و دلپذیر بود. این دائی زیبائی را دوست داشت و ستایش میکرد و رفتارش انچنان بود که دو همسرش با هم دوستان صمیمی تا اخر عمر باقی ماتندند.
اخرین و جواتنرین برادر مادر بزرگ ، دائی جان معینی در دوران جوانی با مادر بزرگ و دختران او بسیار نزدیک بود و بهمراه مادرم تار مینواخت و با انها بمسافرت میرفت. اما بعد از ازدواج و با انکه در شهر محل اقامت مادرم ، یعنی جیرفت زندگی میکرد دیگر ان علاقه قبلی از میان رفته بود و انها بندرت همدیگر را میدیدند. دائی جان معینی دارای 5 فرزند شد :3 دختر و 2 پسر. از پسر ها یکیشسان از دنیا رفته است و ان دیگر در ایران است اما دختران گویا در امریکا زندگی میکنند. مادرشان بدری خانم هم تا زمان این نوشتار گویا در قید حیات است.
خواهران خانواده، بی بی عالیه در دهی بنام قریه العرب در نزدیکی بردسیر با شوهر و 5 فرزندش زندگی میکرد. فرزندان پسر او ، فتح الله، حسن و احمد همگی به کرمان و فتح الله و حسن به تهران نقل مکان کردند. فتح الله خان مردی بسیار خوش قیافه و بلاصطلاح ژیگو لوی زمان خود بود و با نواده صدر الاشراف ازدواج کرد که چند سال از و بزرگتر بود و از وی صاحب چند فرزند شد. سالها بعد فرزندان به امریکا مهاجرت کردند و او در تنهائی در خانه سالمندان از جهان رفت. حسن خان پسر دوم در تهران انگلسی را خوب اموخت و در اداره اصل چهار امریکائیها مشغول بکار شد حسن خان نیز با دختری تهرانی ازدواج کرد که خانم بسیار شیک پوش و خوش صحبت بود و از وی صاحب سه دختر شد که یکی از انها در جوانی به امریکا مهاجرت کرد و دو دختر دیگر در تهران ماندگار شدند. حسن خان در سالهای اخر عمر بالاخره بامریکا رفت اما زیاد ماندگار نشد و در تهران در اثر بیماری الزیمر د رگذشت. پسر خاله سوم، احمد خان در کرمان ماندگار شد و همانجا ازدواج کرد و صاحب فرزندانی شد که از همه بما نزدیکتر بودند. این پسر خاله مادرم همواره با روی باز از ما که در راه کرمان به تهران چند روزی در منزلش توقف میکردیم پذیرائی گرم میکرد و خانه قدیمی کاملا کرمانیش بروی اقوام باز بود. احمد خان در سن پنجاه سالگی در اثر سکته قلبی در گذشت .
فرزندان دختر عالیه خانم، عصمت و ناهید بودند. عصمت خانم در ده محل اقامت شوهرش اقامت داشت اما ناهید که دختر بسیار زیبا و جوانی بود و بازدواج کسی در امد که در ارتش مقامی داشت و هر چند سال یکبار به منطقه ای انتقال می یافت. سرهنک نادری بالاخره ماندگار تهران شد و خانه ای در خیابان شکوفه در چهار راه ژاله اجاره کردند. اولین بار که من در سال 1339 برای امتحان کنکور و ورود به دانشگاه باتفاق مادر بزرگ بتهران امدم در خانه خیابان شکوفه مستاجر انها شدم. ناهید و سرهنگ نادری دارای 5 فرزند شدند اما از بخت بد ناهید به بیماری تومور مغزی گرفتار شد و در سن 32 سالگکی فرزندان خردسالش را تنها گذارد. این کودکان که بزرگترینشان 16 سال داشت در شریط بسیار سختی بزرگ شدند و اکنون هریک سر و سامانی دارند.
از خواهر دوم مادر بزرگ اطلاعات زیادی در دست نیست. وی پس از زادواج به رفسنجان محل اقامت شوهر رفت و ما او و فرزندانش را کمتر ملاقات میکردیم.
برای اطلاع بیشتر به کتبی که در بالا نام برده شده است مرجعه کنید.